Transducer play a vital role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process needs to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another. It is a device which converts one type of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electricity is converted into an electrical energy.
Varieties of transducer: The two main varieties of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers. Active transducers: Active transducer is really a device which converts the given non-electricity into electricity itself. Thermocouple, 3 Axis Load Cell and much more are the best types of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electrical energy by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for that Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is found in some materials (such as quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied towards the structure, it creates an electric charge and, when an electrical field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” comes from the Greek word for pressure.
Piezo Transducer: A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way round. Basically any sort of piezo mechanism can be called a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to drive voltage changes and thus are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are employed in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The main benefit of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker is based on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging will also be according to Torque Transducer. In this case, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly raises the amplitude while lowering the input power simultaneously, i.e. the device is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer: In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually known as piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is normally used to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are usually operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors: Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors that are very frequently used for pressure sensing applications. They may be sometimes used combined with piezo actuators to provide position feedback or force feedback, for example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive implies that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors usually do not produce a charge (energy) and they cannot convert mechanical in electrical power and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a good selection for entry-level systems. Other sensors are available when innovative performance is necessary.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators: If operated under the right conditions, the latest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators could work for 10’s of huge amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping: Because of the fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a good option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor must supply the controller the correct information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by providing the right amplitude and phase output for the piezo actuator. The sensor could even be considered a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to answer strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping: Any type of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. Based on Newton’s laws, what this means is, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the better reactive forces it hdjjdy cause. Just in case these forces are unwanted, another piezo mechanical system using a counter mass can be integrated and driven using a signal from the opposite phase. With some fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel one another out and also the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is usually utilized in fast Jr S Beam Load Cell for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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