Transducer play a crucial role in the area of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process should be converted in one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another.
It really is a device which converts one type of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is transformed into an electric energy.
Kinds of transducer:
The two main types of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: torque transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electricity by itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and more are the best types of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electricity by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer would be the examples for your Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is found in some materials (like quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is used towards the structure, it creates an electrical charge and, when an electric field is applied, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” is derived from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way round. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism can be called button load cell. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to drive voltage changes and for that reason can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are used in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The main benefit of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker lies in the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness in the piezo ceramic plates that are used to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging can also be based upon piezoelectrics. In this instance, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly boosts the amplitude while decreasing the input power simultaneously, i.e. the system is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually known as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually employed to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are usually operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which are very frequently used for pressure sensing applications. These are sometimes used along with piezo actuators to supply position feedback or force feedback, as an example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive means that the resistance changes using the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors tend not to generate a charge (energy) and they also cannot convert mechanical in hkjrzk energy and the other way around. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a wonderful selection for entry-level systems. Other sensors are available when leading edge performance is necessary.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated underneath the right conditions, the latest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can work for 10’s of huge amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of the fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a good choice for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is required to supply the controller the correct information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by offering the right amplitude and phase output for the piezo actuator. The sensor can even be load sensor, configured to answer strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any kind of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. Based on Newton’s laws, what this means is, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the greater reactive forces it will cause. Just in case these forces are unwanted, a second piezo mechanical system with a counter mass may be integrated and driven having a signal in the opposite phase. With a little fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel each other out as well as the work piece are now able to move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is usually utilized in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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